blockchain vocabulary
application specific integrated circuit bitcoins

The exchange rates are updated at regular intervals and presented in tabular form for usual amounts. What is the process for transferring 0. Canadian Dollar. It is updated hourly. You can have bitcoin startkurs event exchange rates in the two lists for more than international currencies. Three options are available: Bank transfer Cash withdrawal Mobile phone transfer. This information was accurate as of

Blockchain vocabulary snapchat crypto

Blockchain vocabulary

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Consortium chains deal with information that would not be appropriate for public release but still needs to be immutably communicated between two parties. Digitally distributed and traded currencies for which proof of ownership is established via cryptographic methods.

For example, Ether cannot be transferred from an account without having control of the private key that is associated with that account. The use of math and logical problem solving to encipher or decipher encoded messages. Computer cryptography is heavily reliant upon mathematical proofs and the computational difficulty of specific mathematical problems.

A system of abstract representations of the ability to reconcile debts that is generally accepted or in use. Money is a currency. In the United States of America, the U. Dollar is the national currency. A decentralized application. DApps operate similarly to regular web applications; however, they retrieve their state and data from a blockchain network or multiple blockchain networks.

DApps do not require a central web server to function and can communicate to each other over the messaging protocol of the blockchain network s to which they're connected. The movement of data, actions, and other interests away from a single actor in favor of distribution amongst all actors.

In a decentralized system, no actor or group of actors can control the system without the consent of the rest of the actors. A company or group of like-minded entities that operate based on the rules set forth in a smart contract. DAOs are used to transform business logic into software logic recorded on a blockchain. A company whose funds are locked in a multisignature wallet that is controlled by a smart contract is an example of a DAO.

In that same example, board of directors decisions might be voted on, recorded, and effected through a smart contract rather than by holding physical board meetings.

Financial services, such as borrowing, lending, mutual funds, and hedge funds, which are implemented in a decentralized manner. They may be on chain Layer 1 or on rollups Layer 2. A directed graph structure e. In the blockchain industry, DAGs are used to create links between blocks , transactions , and data storage structures. A malicious attempt to convince two separate parties that one of two conflicting transactions is valid.

In such a situation, both transactions appear individually valid, but their combination is not. Thus, only one is included in the blockchain. She also tells Charles that she is sending him all tokens.

Bob and Charles are unaware of Alice's duplicate promises. They assume that their transactions are valid and complete their ends in good faith. However, only one of the transactions can possibly be valid on the blockchain, and either Bob or Charles ends up losing out. Due to the nature of blockchain reorganizations natural forks , simply showing that a transaction is included in a block is not enough to verify that it is immutable. Transactions are only immutable once they have reached a depth in the chain where a chain reorganization is unlikely to affect them.

Double spend attacks can be mitigated by waiting to ensure that a transaction is confirmed by the network and is acceptably immutable before acting on it. EOS is a Blockchain 3. The base cryptocurrency for the Ethereum blockchain network.

Ether is used as the currency to pay transaction fees to miners. Ether's base unit is wei, and one ETH is equivalent to wei. Ethereum is a decentralized Blockchain 2. It was the first major smart contract platform and has widespread support from Fortune companies through the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance EEA.

Ethereum currently uses a Proof-of-Work PoW consensus algorithm, but future changes to the protocol will update it to a more scalable algorithm, most likely based on Proof-of-Stake PoS. You can trace transaction history, debug smart contracts, monitor gas fees, and learn more about how Ethereum works. A collection of medium- to large-sized companies that have publicly committed to supporting the development of Ethereum and the creation of applications for the protocol.

A simulated state machine that uses eWASM bytecode to process transactions and perform state transitions for the Ethereum blockchain. Its operation is guaranteed; that is, for any given block , the state of the EVM will be exactly the same on each node in the network , and it is impossible to generate a different state using the same inputs. A service for trading cryptocurrency tokens for other tokens or fiat. Exchanges are highly regulated in the European Union, eastern Asia, and the United States of America; thus, many exchanges are located in countries with less oversight.

Exchanges are one of the only ways to change cryptocurrencies into fiat and transfer that value into a bank account. A cryptocurrency exchange that is hosted entirely through a DApp on a blockchain.

Decentralized exchanges typically do not allow the exchange of cryptocurrency to fiat. Decentralized exchanges are more difficult than standard exchanges to regulate or sanction.

The 0x exchange on the Ethereum network is a prime example of a decentralized exchange. A nationally adopted currency with government support, such as U.

Dollars or Euros. Fiat currencies are desirable due to their legal status and traditional use. The U. FinCEN regulations cover many aspects of cryptocurrency use.

In the blockchain industry, a unique network created using the same protocol or consensus as a previously existing network. A fork that is permanently incompatible with the original network. A fork that is compatible with the data on the original chain.

Blocks created on the original chain after a soft fork would be valid on the forked chain; however the reverse does not have to be true. A protocol upgrade allows transactions to include an additional memo field where no field previously existed. These transactions would not have been valid on the previous version of the chain. However, transactions without that field are still valid formats in either version.

When Ethereum upgraded to the Byzantium version, it was affected through a soft fork. In the blockchain industry, a measure of the computational difficulty required to process a smart contract function.

More complex functions use more gas. Gas can be hardcoded values for each opcode as is the case for Ethereum or subjective values based on the preferences of the miner as is the case for EOSIO. Gas prices allow a network to dynamically respond to changes in bandwidth demand based on market forces. A process by which actors in a network exchange information with all other members. When an actor receives new information, it relays it to every other actor it's connected to that does not already have that information.

Since all actors are cumulatively connected, eventually they all receive the information. A way of displaying information to the user through stylized, on-screen elements, such as windows and taskbars. Compare to command-line interface CLI. The output of a cryptographic function that maps inputs to specific, but seemingly arbitrary, outputs.

Hashes are used to efficiently identify data. While hash collisions are possible, providing two sets of meaningful data whose hashes collide is nearly impossible. Hashes are one-way streets; they can be constructed from data, but data cannot be reconstructed from hashes. A decentralized ledger that uses a gossip protocol to communicate transactions and a tangle -style consensus mechanism.

The rate at which a particular machine can perform a specific hash ing function. Hashrate is similar to general CPU speed, but where processor speed is measured based on the number of arbitrary instructions a machine can carry out per second, hashrate is measured based on the number of times a machine can perform that specific function per second, allowing application-specific integrated circuits ASIC to have a much higher hashrate than a processor with the same clock speed.

A cryptographic function that maps inputs to specific, but seemingly arbitrary, outputs. Hash functions and their qualitative differences are an incredibly important field of research in cryptography. The expression of raw data in base 16 hexadecmial; 0-f , rather than base 2 binary or base 10 counting; Much like an initial public offering of stock, an initial coin offering is a way for a tokenized business to generate investment from the public.

ICOs are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC , even if the tokens are not specifically securities because the language used in promoting a sale can serve to classify tokens as a security offering.

ICOs gained popularity in as a way to circumvent the traditional startup fundraising process. The property of data to be resistant to alterations. Data can be functionally immutable , meaning that it is possible to change it, but it would require prohibitively excessive resources to do so. Java is a programming language that was developed by Oracle.

Java is a popular programming language for server-side applications. JavaScript is a programming language that was developed for web pages and browsers but has since found its way into a variety of applications due to its flexibility. JavaScript can be used to develop both front-end and back-end solutions, making it a popular choice for aspiring full-stack developers.

The largest blockchain network a specific protocol runs, or the most valuable chain as decided by the community. Mainnets are typically where real value is derived and represent the truest intent of the core developers. The process of traversing a Merkle tree from a leaf to the root, hashing each level with the previous to produce a unique hash for the structure of the tree.

Providing the final hash allows other actors to determine if the data in a Merkle tree is the same as their own. A data tree where the end of every branch the leaves is labelled with a unique identifier a cryptographic hash for the branch it is on, and every branch is labeled with all of the leaves and sub-branches on it.

The cryptographic hash of all hashes in a Merkle tree. In a blockchain, this is a hash of all transaction hashes in the chain.

Minecraft is a popular video game in which elements of the environment are represented as blocks or cubes. Minecraft does not use blockchains.

Metamask is a software wallet for the Ethereum blockchain. A miner is an actor in a blockchain network that has the ability to create and submit new blocks to the chain. Which miner is allowed to produce a specific block may be predetermined, or miners may simultaneously compete to add the next block to the chain.

A miner that utilizes its central processor to perform block validation and production. CPU miners are used for mining algorithms that require more generalized processing and cannot be done in parallel i. A miner that utilizes its graphics processor to perform block validation and production. GPU miners excel at mining algorithms that can be performed in parallel and have a limited number of unique operations such as Proof-of-Work.

GPU miners are several orders of magnitude more efficient at performing parallel mining algorithms than CPU miners. A miner that utilizes an application-specific integrated circuit ASIC to perform block validation and production. ASIC miners are orders of magnitude more efficient at processing compatible mining algorithms than GPU miners; however, ASIC miners also cost more to produce and generally have limited supply.

In the blockchain industry, mining is the process of creating a new block and submitting it to the blockchain. A group of miners that agrees to work together to generate the next block in a blockchain before the rest of the network. Proof-of-Work PoW mining pools can increase miner efficiency because the work is distributed, and any invalid work is not repeated by other miners in the pool.

A Blockchain 1. Only the parties to a transaction are able to determine the data in the transaction, including the amount, sender, and recipient. Money transmitting and money transmitters are highly regulated due to their ability to easily launder money.

A set of actors that are collectively interconnected for a common purpose. A participant in a blockchain network that is connected to peers and is capable of validating and propagating new blocks. A node that has the complete state of the blockchain available. A node that has enough block data to validate the chain but lacks the complete state data for each block. Opcodes are extremely basic commands, such as addition, multiplication, and bit shifting. Higher-level programs are compiled from human-readable instructions into opcodes before being sent to the processor.

One of the benefits of open source software is that people from outside the core development team can support it, collaboratively creating new features or fixing bugs. Open source licenses typically include language that prevents anyone from reselling the core code without significant changes.

Compare to closed source. A company based in California that produces enterprise-level software systems. It is notable for having created the Java programming language. Oracles are necessary to provide input that cannot be independently verified, such as temperature measurements. Oracles typically rely on the security of a trusted source rather than the security of trustlessness.

Interactions between actors without a central intermediary. P2P networks allow each peer to connect directly to all other peers in the network. P2P payments transfer value directly between actors without a processor or bank intermediary.

A private key can be used to decrypt a message that is symmetrically encrypted using the corresponding public key. Once a private key is made public, it is useless as a point of authentication. A set of rules and policies used to manage identification through public-key encryption in a network.

Typically, a certificate authority is also involved to certify that a specific private key corresponds to a specific user or domain. Private keys are typically stored in secure, unique files just for that key, while public keys are broadcast to everyone. A private key can be used to sign messages using symmetric cryptography and probably assert that they came from a specific user.

The principles underlying private key infrastructures are also applied for many zero-knowledge proof applications. A cryptographically signed assertion by a trusted third-party auditor that an actor holds the declared number of resources. Proof-of-Liquidity is used for cryptocurrencies that are pegged to a real-world security or commodity.

A consensus mechanism in which the ability to produce a block is proportional to the amount of the blockchain's native cryptocurrency an actor holds. The more cryptocurrency the actor holds, the more likely it becomes that he or she will be assigned as a block producer. A consensus mechanism built on the principles of Proof-of-Stake PoS in which stakeholders may nominate block producers.

DPoS is useful for pooling stakes, allowing many small-value accounts to meaningfully participate by collectively appointing the same block producer. A consensus mechanism in which actors race to solve a computationally difficult problem in order to win the ability to produce the next block in a blockchain. Generally, the process involves a degree of randomness that makes it impossible to find a solution based upon previous inputs; the only information obtained from a solution is that the particular solution is valid.

Multiple solutions may by valid for solving the problem, although the odds of finding two unique solutions is incredibly small. While finding the solution to these problems requires significant processing time, proving that a solution is correct is trivial in nature. The network must then start the race over with the updated data. Because it is an essentially random process to find a solution, the probability of solving the problem is related to the actor's processing speed and the acceptance criteria for the solution the difficulty.

Stricter acceptance criteria reduce the speed at which the network finds a solution, and varying the acceptance criteria can allow a network to control the solution rate. If a network is producing solved proofs every 10 seconds at attempts per second, and it wants to reduce the time to five seconds, the acceptance criteria can be changed to allow twice as many possible solutions, or the network can double its processing speed.

For a bad actor to replace a previous solution with his or her own, he or she would need to have enough machines to make an additional attempts per second. To take over all production of blocks requires only half of that though; the bad actor only needs to solve the problem faster on average than the rest of the network.

Cryptographic Hash Function A function that returns a unique fixed-length string. The returned string is unique for every unique input. Dapps Decentralized Applications. DAO A decentralized autonomous organization is an organization that is run through rules encoded as computer programs called smart contracts. DDos Attacks A denial-of-service attack is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

Decentralized The concept of a shared network of dispersed computers or nodes that can process transactions without a centrally located, third-party intermediary. Digital Asset Any text or media that is formatted into binary source Digital signature A mathematical scheme used for presenting the authenticity of digital assets Distributed Ledger A database held and updated independently by each participant or node in a large network.

The distribution is unique: records are not communicated to various nodes by a central authority,. The list of US states could be considered an enum. EOA Externally Owned Account ERC Ethereum request for comments standard Ethereum Blockchain application that uses a built-in programming language that allows users to build decentralized ledgers modified to their own needs. Smart contracts are used to validate transactions in the ledger. Fork Alters the blockchain data in a public blockchain.

Gas Ethereum Measures how much work an action takes to perform in ethereum Genesis Block The initial block within a blockchain. Github A web based hosting service for version control using git Golang Google language Created by google in golang is a programming language based on c Gossip Protocol A gossip protocol is a procedure or process of computer-computer communication that is based on the way social networks disseminate information or how epidemics spread.

It is a communication protocol. Governance The administration in a blockchain company that decides the direction of the company. Hard Fork Alters the blockchain data in a public blockchain.

Requires all nodes in a network to upgrade and agree on the new version. Hash function A function that maps data of an arbitrary size Hyperledger Started by the Linux Foundation, Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains Hyperledger Composer Hyperledger Composer is Blockchain Application Development framework which simplify the blockchain application development on Hyperledger Fabric Hyperledger Fabric Hyperledger project hosted by Linux which hosts smart contracts called chaincode.

Modeled after an Initial public offereing IPO. Funders of an ICO recieve tokens. Instantiate d To provide an instance of or concrete evidence in support of a theory, concept, claim, or the like. Invariant A function, quantity, or property that remains unchanged when a specified transformation is applied. Merkle Tree A tree in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes.

Mining The act of validating Blockchain transactions. Mining rewards coins based on your computing power Mining pool A collection of miners who come together to share their processing power over a network and agree to split the rewards of a new block found within the pool.

Node A copy of the ledger operated by a user on the blockchain Nonce A number only used once in a cryptographic communication often includes a timestamp Nothing at Stake problem This is caused by validator nodes approving all transactions on old and new software after a hard fork occurs NPM Node Package Manager Default package manager runtime environment node.

NPM manages dependencies for an application. Oauth protocol Open Authorization is a standard that is used by third party services to keep and distribute users information without exposing their password Ommer aka Uncle A block which has been completely mined but has not yet been added to the Blockchain. On-chain governance A system for managing and implementing changes to a cryptocurrency blockchain Oracles An agent that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used by smart contracts.

Orderer Network A computer network that allows nodes to share resources. P2P Peer to Peer Denoting or relating to computer networks in which each computer can act as a server for the others, allowing shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server PKI Public Key Infrastructure A set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.

Pragma s or Pragma-line Defines which compiler version the smart contract uses Private Blockchain Blockchain that can control who has access to it. Proof of Activity Active Stakeholders who maintain a full node are rewarded Proof of Burn Miners send coins to an inactive address essentially burning them. The burns are then recorded on the blockchain and the user is rewarded.

Proof of Capacity Plotting your hard drive storing solutions on a hard drive before the mining begins.

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Bid-ask spread is the difference between the highest price which a buyer is willing to pay for an asset as well as the lowest price that a seller is willing to accept. The four or five biggest technological corporations, particularly Facebook, Apple, Google, and Amazon, are referred to as "Big Tech" as they enjoy the biggest shares in their respective industries. Binance Labs is a project to nurture, invest in, and develop blockchain and cryptocurrency businesses, initiatives, and communities, as well as a social impact fund.

Binance Launchpad offers crypto-startups a platform to raise capital and market their projects to millions of crypto investors in the Binance ecosystem. Binary code is a two-symbol system that is based on numbers, "0" and "1," to represent text, computer processor commands, or any other type of data. An automated teller machine ATM or cashpoint that allows the user to buy and sell Bitcoin.

Decentralized applications DApps running on Bitcoin-powered blockchains while benefiting from the core features of the Bitcoin network are known as Bitcoin DApps. Bitcoin Dominance is a metric that determines how much share of the overall crypto market share is owned by Bitcoin.

The standard format for documents proposing changes to Bitcoin. Bitcoin Pizza refers to the infamous transaction where a guy, named Laszlo Hanyecz, paid 10, Bitcoins for two pizzas making it the first business transaction of Bitcoin in the real world.

Bitcointalk is the most popular online forum dedicated to Bitcoin, cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. A business license permitting regulated virtual currency activities, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services.

A commonly used unit, or subdivision, of a single Bitcoin. Black hat hackers usually use malware to penetrate into computerized networks and systems to steal data.

A black swan event, also known as black swan occurrences, is a metaphor for an unexpected event that has a significant impact. A file containing information on transactions completed during a given time period. Blocks are the constituent parts of a blockchain.

An application enabling a user to view details of blocks on a given blockchain. Also known as a blockchain browser. A block header is a unique identifier for a block on a blockchain that is hashed on a continuous basis to supply proof-of-work for mining incentives.

A value describing the number of blocks preceding a given block in the blockchain. A block producer BP is a person or group whose hardware is chosen to verify a block's transactions and begin the next block on most Proof-of-Stake PoS blockchains. The coins awarded to a miner or group of miners for solving the cryptographic problem required to create a new block on a given blockchain. In blockchain technology, block size refers to the amount of data about transactions a single block in the chain can carry.

Block time refers to the approximate time it takes for a blockchain-based system to produce a new block. A block trade is a large-scale purchase or sale of securities that occur outside of an open market.

It uses blockhouse as a financial intermediary to aid investors with risk management. A distributed ledger system.

A sequence of blocks, or units of digital information, stored consecutively in a public database. The basis for cryptocurrencies. Blockchain 1. Blockchain 2. Blockchain 3. A blockchain explorer is simply a search engine allowing users to browse through blockchain records.

Blockchain mutual credit is a framework within which stable cryptocurrencies can be derived from multilateral exchange networks. Blockchain Transmission Protocol BTP enables isolated blockchains to operate as a fully decentralized settlement layer by securely anchoring transactions using a protocol that is universal. Blockchain tribalism refers to people in the blockchain or crypto community becoming ideologically aligned with a specific blockchain or crypto.

The blockchain trilemma is the set of three issues that plague blockchains: decentralization, security and scalability. Blockchain-enabled smart locks solve many security issues and can be locked or unlocked based on the state of a variable that is embedded in a smart contract. The Bluesky crypto protocol is a decentralized social network protocol, organized by Twitter, that allows several social networks to interact with other social networks, thanks to an open standard.

A tool developed by Bollinger to help in the recognition of systemic pattern recognition in prices; it is a band that is plotted two standard deviations away from the simple moving average, or exponential moving average in some cases.

A bonding curve is a mathematical curve that defines the relationship between the price and the supply of a given asset.

Automated software that can carry out tasks such as cryptocurrency trades. A cryptocurrency bounty is a reward users receive for performing tasks assigned by a given blockchain or project. In the world of cryptocurrencies, breaking the forward compatibility of cryptoassets is seen in hard forks of a cryptocurrency. Brian Armstrong is the founder of Coinbase, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the United States.

A blockchain bridge allows the seamless transfer of data or tokens between two different blockchain projects. A browser extension is a plugin for an internet browser that adds additional features. An attempt to crack a password or key through automated trial and error. When an asset is traded at a price exceeding that asset's intrinsic value. A reward offered for the identification of vulnerabilities in software. A bug exploit is an attack that take advantage of a system's vulnerabilities.

A person that is optimistic and confident that market prices will increase, this person is also known to be "bullish" about the market or price.

A bull market in crypto and stock markets refers to a time during which the prices of assets grow dramatically. These markets act as a source of motivation for both investors and purchasers. This is not a permanent state, although it can linger for months or even years. A bull run also known as a bull trend is a period of time in the financial market during which the values of certain assets are constantly rising. A bull trap occurs when a steadily declining asset appears to reverse and go upward, but soon resumes its downward trend.

An enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to buy while prices are at a low point. A buy wall is a disproportionately large buy limit order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange.

Byron Phase is the first phase of Cardano that was released in September Byzantine Fault Tolerance BFT is the property of a computer system that allows it to reach consensus regardless of the failure of some of its components. A situation where communication that requires consensus on a single strategy from all members within a group or party cannot be trusted or verified.

The Byzantium hard fork was geared towards making Ethereum's smart contracts suitable for usage in the commercial space and to increase the speed of the transactions with an enhancement in the security on its blockchain. Call options are financial contracts that give an option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond, commodity or other asset at a specific price.

A candlestick chart is a graphing technique used to show changes in price over time. Each candle provides 4 points of information opening price, closing price, high, and low.

Capital is most commonly defined as the large sum of money you would use to invest. Capital efficiency is the ratio that compares the spending of a company on their growing revenue and how much they are receiving in return in the way of profits.

Capital funding is the money provided in the form of debt or equity to operate a company. Capitulation is the process of selling assets or cryptocurrencies at a significant loss because you have lost hope or belief that it will ever increase in price.

A physical unit of Bitcoin that comes in the form of brass, silver or gold-plated coins. Cascading liquidation refers to an event where liquidations pile on top of each other, resulting in a sudden price change. Cash is the most liquid form of money: physical coins and banknotes in the most narrow sense of the term. Casper is a project designed to implement PoS into the Ethereum network.

CeDeFi, or centralized decentralized finance, combines traditional centralized financial services with decentralized applications, merging conventional regulatory policies with modern financial products and infrastructure.

Censorship is the act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting speech or writing that is considered detrimental to the general public. Censorship resistance refers to the idea that no party can prevent anyone from participating in a given platform or network. In contemporary economies, the central bank is responsible for the formulation and transmission of monetary policy, as well as for the regulation of member banks.

CBDCs are digital currencies issued by a central bank whose status as legal tender depends on government regulation or law. A central ledger is a physical book or a computer file used to record transactions in a centralized manner. A central processing unit CPU is the part of a computer that is in charge of interpreting and executing programs and coordinating the work of all other components. A centralized organizational structure is one in which a single node or a small number of them are in control of an entire network.

Centralized exchanges CEXs are a type of cryptocurrency exchange that is operated by a company that owns it in a centralized manner. A certificate of deposit CD is a financial product allowing customers to earn an interest rate premium after making a deposit. Chain reorganization is a process in blockchain technology that allows node operators to replace blocks and adopt new ones, in order to create new, longer chains of data.

Chain splits are another term used to describe cryptocurrency forks � the separation of a single original coin into several independently managed projects. Change � a concept relevant to cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model � is the number of coins sent back to a user after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction. In cryptocurrencies, a change address is where the change from a transaction is temporarily stored before it is returned to the sender wallet.

Changpeng Zhao CZ is the founder of crypto exchange Binance. A chargeback is the return of money to the payer of a certain transaction, most commonly one that was made with a credit or debit card. Chunk is a fraction of each block produced as a result of sharding in the NEAR protocol. A cipher is any algorithm that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information. Ciphertext is a result of encryption that has been performed on plaintext through the usage of an algorithm.

A client is software that can access and process blockchain transactions on a local computer. A common application of this is a cryptocurrency software wallet. Refers to the closing price; similar to the same term used in stock trading. Cloud servers are typically located throughout different data centers all over the world. Cryptocurrency mining with remote processing power rented from companies. A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet.

The action of coding is to write programming statements for a program. A coin can refer to a cryptocurrency that can operate independently or to a single unit of such cryptocurrency. Coin mixers allow users to mix up transactions between different cryptocurrency addresses, so they become untraceable and cannot be followed back to the initial sender or receiver of the assets.

In mineable cryptocurrencies, a coinbase is the number of coins that are generated from scratch and awarded to miners for mining every new block. The first transaction in a new block is a coinbase transaction in which the miner receives Bitcoins and mining fees. Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets. A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i.

Collateral is any asset that a lender accepts as a form of security to ensure that the borrower repays a loan. Collateral cap is a security feature designed to diversify protocol-wide lending risk away from any one asset.

Collateral Factor is the maximum amount a user can borrow, represented in percentages, based on the total amount of assets supplied. In cryptocurrency, collateral tokens are used as a risk mitigation asset when borrowing other types of crypto tokens.

Collateralization is the process of using one asset as insurance for securing a loan in a different asset. A collateralized debt obligation CDO represents a mixture of loans and assets that are offered to big investment firms with a lot of capital. A collateralized debt position is held by locking collateral in smart contracts to generate stablecoins.

A collateralized mortgage obligation CMO is essentially a bundle of numerous mortgages combined in a package and sold to investors. Commingling of funds is a method of combining all funds from different investors into a single investment in order to maximize the benefits. Composable DeFi refers to the interoperability between different DeFi protocols. It enables a multitude of DeFi applications to work along and create a wide range of new use cases and financial products.

A composable token is an ERC token, a standard extension to any non-fungible token, adding the ability for non-fungible tokens to own other non-fungible ERC and fungible ERC tokens.

Concentrated liquidity greatly improves the capital efficiency for LPs and opens up the door to a whole number of liquidity provision strategies in the process. In cryptocurrency, a confirmation is a measure of how many blocks have actually passed since a transaction was added to a blockchain. A cryptocurrency transaction is considered confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain. Each new block after the first one is an additional confirmation for that transaction. Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the order and content of the blocks in the blockchain.

A consensus mechanism is an underlying technology behind the main functionalities of all blockchain technology, which makes them an essential operating feature of all cryptocurrencies. ConsenSys is a blockchain technology company that offers developer tools alongside enterprise solutions. Consolidation in trading is when a crypto asset trades between two levels, and the market shows indecisiveness about the next move. A privately owned and operated blockchain where a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain.

A Consumer Price Index or CPI is a type of index where the prices of a basket of goods and services are tracked to gain insights into market segments. In traditional finance, a contract is a binding agreement between two parties. In cryptocurrencies, smart contracts execute functions on the blockchain. A contract account is an account that has a crypto balance and associated code.

In blockchain technology, a coordinator is a specialized client that allows nodes to verify the validity of their copy of the ledger against specific transactions. A core crypto wallet is able to contain the entire blockchain, rather than just a piece of a blockchain. A corporate treasury is formed to manage and control the liquidity, risk, funds, capital reserves, and other resources of a company to align with its short and long-term strategies. Since mining requires computing power, the process of generating or mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit CPU is called CPU mining or central processing unit mining.

Craig Wright is an Australian computer scientist that has publicly claimed to be Bitcoin inventor Satoshi Nakamoto. Credit rating is a measure that allows banks and lending institutions to predict how capable you are of repaying your debt. Crest risk is the number representing the possibility that a bank or lending institution will lose money because a borrower cannot repay their loan.

Cross Margin, also known as "Spread Margin" is a margin method that utilizes the full amount of funds in the available balance to avoid liquidations. Cross-border trading in financial markets and trade finance represents the opportunity to trade globally using a local currency.

Cross-chain is a technology that enhances the interconnection between blockchain networks by allowing the exchange of information and value. Cross-chain communication between blockchains allows different protocols to verify data and transactions without the intervention of a centralized third-party service. Cross-chain contract calls allow information, cryptocurrencies or NFTs, which would otherwise be constrained to their own network, to move freely between blockchains via smart contracts.

Crowdfunding enables fundraisers to collect money from a large number of people through a variety of different platforms. A crypto debit card is a type of debit card that allows its holder to pay for goods and services using cryptocurrencies. Crypto invoicing is the process of creating invoices for goods and services that need to be paid in cryptocurrencies.

A crypto loan is a type of secured loan, similar to an auto or student loan, in which you commit to an asset as collateral in order to secure financing.

Crypto winter is a period in the crypto market when prices of major coins fall dramatically from all-time highs. A cryptoasset is any digital asset that uses cryptographic technologies to maintain its operation as a currency or decentralized application. Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use cryptographic technologies to secure their operation.

Cryptocurrency money laundering is a method criminals use to legitimize and enshroud funds by changing fiat to digital currency and then routing it through many pathways. It is an attempt to lose any authorities who may be tracing the money. Exchanges utilize cryptocurrency pairs in order to facilitate the trade between different tokens. Cryptographic hash functions produce a fixed-size hash value from a variable-size transaction input.

A field of study and practice to secure information, preventing third parties from reading information to which they are not privy. Cryptology is the scientific study of cryptography as well as cryptanalysis. Curve is a software that uses multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker AMM service focused on stablecoins cryptocurrencies programmed to mimic other assets.

A custodian is responsible for safely holding assets for an institution or individual for a variety of purposes. Custody is a financial institution's legal capacity to keep and preserve financial assets for its clients to avoid asset theft or loss. The cypherpunk movement promotes the use of cryptography and other privacy-focused technologies to advance social and political progress.

Daedalus Wallet Daedalus Wallet is a multi-platform, open-source, hierarchical-deterministic wallet that lets you generate an endless number of keys from a single seed. A portion of the internet existing on darknets not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations.

RenVM is driven by Darknodes, a decentralized network of computers. In exchange for compensation, they offer their computing power and storage space to everyone with certain conditions. Data privacy refers to the area of data protection and security that is responsible for the handling of sensitive data.

Data scraping or web scraping is the process of extracting information from a website into a spreadsheet or a local file on your computer or database.

Data validation is the process of clarifying the accuracy, integrity and quality of a set of data before it is used. A term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale.

Day trading is the practice of frequently buying and selling assets in order to make a profit on intraday changes in their price. A temporary recovery in prices after a prolonged decrease.

A death cross is a bearish technical trading indicator that occurs when the day moving average falls below the day moving average, indicating a big sell-off. Decentralization maximalism refers to the belief that decentralization is the best approach and lifestyle to such a degree that any form of regulation does not need to exist. The Decentralization Ratio DR is the ratio of collateral value that is decentralized over the total stablecoin supply backed for those assets.

Decentralization refers to the property of a system in which nodes or actors work in concert in a distributed fashion to achieve a common goal. API services that are intrinsically interoperable with blockchain technology are known as decentralized application programming interfaces dAPIs.

This is an invention of the API3 protocol. A type of application that runs on a decentralized network, avoiding a single point of failure. A method for decentralized funding of projects that introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

A decentralized autonomous organization DAO is founded upon and governed by a set of computer-defined rules and blockchain-based smart contracts. Decentralized currency refers to bank-free methods of transferring wealth or ownership of any other commodity without needing a third party. A decentralized database is a modern-day storage solution that combines decentralized technologies with cutting-edge computing to randomly store data and files across multiple nodes, delivering high security and unmatched availability while being completely censorship-resistant.

A peer-to-peer exchange allowing users to trade cryptocurrency without the need for an intermediary. Decentralized governance refers to the procedures through which a platform's disintermediated, equitable management is carried out for blockchain networks and dApps. A decentralized identifier, or DID, refers to an ID that can be issued by an autonomous, independent, and decentralized platform that acts as a proof of ownership of digital identity.

A decentralized marketplace, built on blockchain technology, allows traders or investors to trade with each other while eliminating middlemen. They are available globally and require no intermediaries to make trades possible. A decentralized network is a collection of interconnected but distinct elements that interact with one another without the need for a centralized power or server.

A decentralized payment network refers to a system where users, customers and vendors can exchange money without having to trust any third party to keep the network secure and operational. Decentralized social media is a social media platform that is based on blockchain.

Decentralized stablecoins are fully transparent, non-custodial with no or partial third-party control. The process of transforming encrypted data back into a format that is readable by a user or machine. The "deep web" is the part of the internet that is hidden from regular search engines.

A movement encouraging alternatives to traditional, centralized forms of financial services. A DeFi aggregator brings together trades across various DeFi platforms into one place. DeFi degenerates. A subculture associated with a disreputable corner of decentralized finance known for pump and dump schemes. A decline in the general level of prices for goods and services in an economy. An alternative to the Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms. Demurrage is a fee charged for using an asset beyond a certain time period.

A denial-of-service attack aims to temporarily make a computer or network service unavailable to its intended users. A graph that plots the requests to buy bids and the requests to sell asks on a chart, based on limit orders. The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction. A financial instrument deriving its value from the value of an underlying asset. A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.

A desktop wallet is a type of software wallet that is usually non-custodial. A type of cryptocurrency wallet in which keys and addresses are created from a single seed. DEX aggregators are a relatively new type of blockchain-based service that allow cryptocurrency traders to benefit from a large variety of financial tools in a single interface, often providing better liquidity and prices on different crypto pairs.

An open-source stack for building debt markets on Ethereum. Diamond Hands is a popular term on social media platforms. A measure of how hard it is to validate a new block on a blockchain. Digital technologies are these electronic tools that have the ability to generate, store or even process data. Digital art is art and media that is made by using digital technology. A digital asset refers to the digital representation of something of value.

A digital asset custodian is responsible to look after digital assets on behalf of an investor or client. Digital asset ecosystem is a term that defines everything involved in the crypto space. From NFTs to futures, this terms sums up all the facilities offered and elements associated with the crypto universe.

Eliminating the inherent weaknesses of the traditional barter economy, a digital barter economy makes it easier to trade both physical and virtual items anywhere in the world. A currency that exists only in digital form, as opposed to traditional physical currencies.

Information used by a person or entity to identify themselves to a computer or network. A method for proving the authenticity of a digital communication. Digital Signature Algorithm DSA is a signature algorithm, not an encryption algorithm, and uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures.

No, not that. A dip is when markets experience a short or protracted downturn. A way of structuring data, often used for data modelling, and increasingly as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies. Discord is a web-based communication tool or application primarily built to enable communication between gamers. An attempt by a bad actor to disrupt the operation of an application, server or network by flooding it with traffic. Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes.

A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private. A database that is shared by multiple participants, in multiple places.

The basis for blockchains. A network in which the data and applications are dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to one location. The distribution phase is the opposite of the accumulation phase. In this phase, the market moves sideways and is range-bound after experiencing an extended uptrend. Diversification is a risk-management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio.

Documentation is a part of token economies that stores all the details of an asset on the blockchain. A measure of Bitcoin's value in the context of the larger cryptocurrency market. DotSama is a new piece of crypto slang, used to describe the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems in just one word. A double-spend attack is a practice in the world of digital currencies where a user gains the ability to spend the same cryptocurrency more than once. It addresses the key challenges faced by the existing distributed network of nodes and validators.

The maximum reduction in value from the peak value for an investment or fund that has occurred over a period of time. In the world of blockchain, a dual-token economy or model means a project with two tokens, one of which is used for utility inside the network and the other one as security to raise funds for the crypto project.

A collective market sell-off that occurs when large quantities of a particular cryptocurrency are sold in a short period of time. Miniscule amounts of Bitcoin in a wallet � with a value that would be outweighed by the cost of a transaction fee. The acronym of Do Your Own Research � encouraging investors to complete due diligence into a project before investing.

E-Signature An electronic signature, or e-signature, is any electronic mark sign, sound, symbol, etc. Economic utility is a term in economics that refers to the total satisfaction that a person can derive from consuming a good or service. In computer science, an edge node is a computer that serves as an end-user gateway to form a connection with other nodes. A Bitcoin wallet for Windows, Mac and Linux with a simple interface. The Elliott Wave Theory is an essential tool for many stock and crypto market traders.

Email spoofing is a technique that is used in order to trick users into thinking that a message actually came from a different person. Encryption is a method through which information can be made into code.

Enterprise blockchain is the use of distributed ledger technology for non-speculative business purposes. Tailored for the needs of enterprises, these chains may be private or public. A group of organizations and companies working together to further develop the Ethereum network. One entire run of the training dataset through the algorithm is referred to as an epoch in machine learning.

Equity is the funds that would be returned to a company's shareholders if all of the company's assets were dissolved and all debts were paid off in the event of liquidation. Erasure coding is a method of storing data at multiple locations after doing its segmentation, expansion, and encoding with redundant information.

ERC digital token standard was created by Enjin and offers more security in comparison to older token standards. It can be used to create both fungible and non-fungible assets on the Ethereum network. Tokens designed and used solely on the Ethereum platform.

ERC is an Ethereum token standard that is powered by smart contracts that enable users to securely transfer tokens to a digital wallet. ERC is a tradable token standard spun out from ERC to enable a new way to engage with a token contract while staying backward compatible. ERC is an ETH token standard that addresses the existing limitations of ERC 20 when it comes to the implementation of calls in transfers and approvals in particular.

ERC facilitates the creation of tradable ERC tokens, each of which symbolizes a numberless share issued by a Delaware corporation. ERC is a new Ethereum token protocol that is designed to connect subscription businesses with customers and allows for subscription-based transactions.

A financial instrument where assets or cash are held by a third party while a buyer and a seller complete a deal. Electronic sports, commonly known as e-sports, is a term used for digital gaming competition, in which players battle against each other in an individual or team-based format often in a competition or event that offers huge monetary rewards to the winners.

Some e-sports games are also available in a single-player mode. Ethash is the algorithm utilized for the proof of work mining Ethereum and ETH-based cryptocurrencies. The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum. Ethereum Request for Comment ERC is the protocol to introduce new improvements to the network by developers.

Ethereum transaction are cryptographically signed instructions to initiate a transaction to update the state of the Ethereum network. A Turing-complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended; it is the runtime environment for every smart contract.

Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain. When a transaction is mined, smart contracts can emit events and write logs to the blockchain which the frontend can then process. Businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. A security that tracks a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies but can be traded like a single stock.

In other industries, this event occurs when a business stops shipping orders even if it is receiving payment for the new ones. Falling Knife A falling knife refers to the price dive of an asset and denotes a downward momentum of the financial market.

Falling wedges, also known as descending wedges, have a distinct downward slope and a bullish bias in comparison to symmetrical triangles, which have no discernible slope and no bias.

The FATF Travel Rule requires virtual asset service providers to regulate information sharing for certain large transactions. A cryptocurrency reward system usually on a website or app, that rewards users for completing certain tasks. Fee tiers refer to the fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.

It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit. A fiat-on ramp is a way to get cryptocurrency from fiat, or regular money. A coin, token or asset issued on a blockchain that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.

Field Programmable Gate Array is an integrated circuit that allows customers or designers to reconfigure as per requirement after the manufacturing process. The first-mover advantage refers to the launch of an innovative product or service which provides a head-start to a company by creating brand loyalty and penetrating markets before their future competitors. A flash loan is a transaction in which a specific quantity of liquidity is borrowed and repaid in the same transaction or block.

Flash loan attacks are when malicious actors exploit a smart contract. Flash loans are a type of uncollateralized lending used in decentralized finance DeFi. Flashbots was launched as an independent research and development organization with an aim to lessen the adverse effects of the Maximal Extractable Value MEV extraction.

A hypothetical scenario where Ethereum's market cap overtakes Bitcoin's. An investment strategy where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time.

An acronym that stands for "Fear of Missing Out. Forks, or chain splits, create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously.

When an entirely new program has been developed from source code, taken from an open source software. A fractional stablecoin is one that is backed in two ways: collaterally-backed and algorithmically modified. A fraud proof is a technological method that functions as a bond in a decentralized environment that uses Optimistic Rollups ORs , which are sidechains that aim to reduce the costs and latency that dApps might encounter on a blockchain platform.

Front running is when you place a transaction in a queue when you have knowledge of a future transaction. FDV is the total worth or market cap of a cryptocurrency if the entire supply of tokens were in circulation.

Fully homomorphic encryption is a type of scheme where one can perform arbitrary computations on encrypted data and generate the same results as when performing those computations on the plaintext. A method in which you research the underlying value of an asset by looking at the technology, team, growth prospects and other indicators.

Funding payments are periodic payments between traders. These are designed to reduce the discrepancy between the perpetual market price and the spot market price. In cryptocurrency, fungibility is when a coin or token can be replaced by any other identical coin or token. Futo is an organization that develops and invests in decentralized technologies and companies. A futures contract is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

Gains Gains refer to an increase in value or profit. Game channels are the newest technological advancement in the world of blockchain gaming, as they enable fast gameplay by removing the wait time for block confirmations.

With game channels, games and dApps can run off-chain securely, individually, and in near real-time. GameFi, better known as play-to-earn P2E games, is a rather new term in the field of both gaming and cryptocurrency industries.

It references games that are designed with economic and financial aspects of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, enabling players to exert full control over their in-game assets to generate revenue.

A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to a unit of measuring the computational effort of conducting transactions or smart contracts, or launch DApps in the Ethereum network. A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction.

A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction. Gas Station Networks GSN allows you to build decentralized applications dApps which provide payment for transactions, so users do not need to hold Ether or ETH to pay for gas, easing their onboarding process and improving user acquisition and experience.

Gavin Wood is the co-founder of Parity Technologies, and one of the founders of Ethereum. Gem is a term for relatively unknown low-cap coins that have immense potential or are grossly undervalued. The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain, often referred to as block 0 or block 1. Geotagged non-fungible tokens NFT feature 3D versions of the street art alongside the corresponding geo-location.

They allows art aficionados to own both the virtual and physical artwork without the need to remove the actual infrastructure it was originally painted on.

Geth, short for Go Ethereum, is a command-line interface that allows developers to run full Ethereum nodes, mine the cryptocurrency and execute smart contracts. GitHub is one of the most popular code hosting platforms, allowing developers to collaborate on various projects. The Goguen phase of Cardano allows the development of smart contracts and DApps. A coin or token issued that represents a value of gold; for example, one physical gram of gold equals one coin.

Google Authenticator is a software-based verification system that generates unique one-time codes that are time-based on your mobile phone. In the world of cryptocurrencies, governance is defined as the people or organizations that have decision-making powers regarding the project.

A governance token is a token that can be used to vote on decisions that influence an ecosystem. More commonly known as a graphics card, it is a computer chip that creates 3D images on computers, but has turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies. Gray swan is a significant event whose occurrence could be predicted, but the likelihood is low. The greater fool theory was first discussed by professor Burton Malkiel. A green candle is an indication of the price closing higher than the opening price.

The green candle is an indication that the overall sentiment of the market at the time of trading was bullish, or positive. A wide body with a small tail on top indicates a strong bullish movement in the market. As opposed to solo mining, group mining is when multiple people mine together. The denomination used in defining the cost of gas in transactions involving Ether.

Hacking Hacking is the process of using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized fashion. An event in which the total rewards per confirmed block halves. A hard cap is the absolute maximum supply of a digital asset. A type of protocol change that validates all previously invalid transactions, and invalidates all previously valid transactions. A hard fork combinator first designed by IOHK is a tool to combine protocols specifically on the Cardano blockchain after a hard fork has occurred.

A hard peg is an exchange rate policy, where a currency is set at a fixed rate against another currency. A hardware security module is a type of computing device that secures digital keys and encrypts data. A hardware wallet is a wallet for cryptocurrencies that usually resemble a USB stick.

A hash is the output result of a hashing algorithm, which creates a unique, fixed-length string to encrypt and secure a certain selection of arbitrary data. Any function used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. A unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate. A hashed timelock contract HTLC is an agreement between two parties that requires no trust between two users by offering special features to reduce risk.

The hashgraph consensus is an advanced and up-to-date version of the technology that enables consensus mechanisms. A hedge contract is a form of insurance that investors use to hedge against the risk of financial loss.

Typically, a hedge is designed to protect against price fluctuations in the market. Hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its initial coin offering ICO. The purpose of a hidden cap is to even the playing field by letting smaller investors put in money, without the large investors forming an accurate understanding of the total cap and adjusting their investment as a result.

A wallet that uses Hierarchical Deterministic HD protocol to support the generation of crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases. A higher high is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes higher than the previous day, which itself closed at a high. A higher low is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes at a level that is higher than the close of the previous day. A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets.

Honeyminer is a cryptocurrency mining app available for download on multiple devices. A Hostage Byte Attack is a distributed denial of service DDoS attack against a user that stored its data on a malicious storage node and is asked to pay ransom to retrieve its data.

The online storage of private keys allowing for quicker access to cryptocurrencies. A cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet for hot storage of cryptoassets.

A test used to determine whether or not an asset is a security. In computer programming, human-readable refers to making information able to be read naturally by humans and stands in opposition to machine-readable format - i.

This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS. Hyperinflation is defined as unrestricted growth in prices for goods and services in an economy. It happens when resources become limited, such as gas or food, and prices rise as demand outstrips supply.

Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers. Immutable A property that defines the inability to be changed, especially over time.

Impermanent loss is when a liquidity provider has a temporary loss of funds because of volatility in a trading pair. In-the-money and out-of-the-money are options trading mechanisms that allow investors to benefit from additional tools to work with the market. Pre-approving smart contracts to enable the platform to spend any amount of your coins. An infinite mint attack occurs when an unwanted entity or hacker mints an absurd "infinite" amount of tokens within a protocol.

A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money. A novel way of launching a project that focuses on people contributing skills to a platform rather than money. Short for Initial Coin Offering, an ICO is a type of crowdfunding, or crowdsale, using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for early-stage companies.

A type of crowdfunding where crypto start-ups generate capital by listing through an exchange. Initial game offerings IGOs provide individuals with an opportunity to invest in gaming projects at an early stage that have the potential to offer huge returns after their launch. A crypto crowdfunding solution where projects can raise funds by listing a set of NFTs via a launchpad. An initial public offering IPO is the process of a company offering shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.

Unlike existing fundraising models, ISPOs are more inclusive, decentralized, equitable, and secure. ITOs are similar to initial coin offerings � but have more of a focus on offering tokens with intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem. Insider trading happens when someone purchases or sells stocks while possessing private, material information about that stock. Instant settlement network allows participants to exchange digital assets in real-time from anywhere in the world.

An Institutional Investor is an organization or a legal entity that trades in the market on behalf of its clients that may be retail investors.

An exchange insurance fund is used to cover any unexpected losses from leveraged trading. This fund is used to prevent traders from bankruptcy in the event of liquidations. An integrated development environment IDE is a type of software that helps you develop apps by merging many development tools into a single graphical user interface GUI. Intellectual property IP is a type of property that can be legally protected from being copied or sold � it includes intangible creations that result from human thinking such as a book, song, design, business method, or software.

Inter-Blockchain Communication IBC is a communication protocol that allows different blockchains to relay messages to each other. The Intercontinental Exchange ICE is an American company founded in to purchase and operate global exchanges and clearing houses.

A time-dependent charge or return made in proportion to the amount of money deposited, borrowed or lent. A person or entity that acts as the go-between different parties to bring about agreements or carry out directives. An internal transaction, also known as a "message," is a byproduct of an EOA interaction with a contract address that results in Ether being transferred. A meme is an image, a video, or a piece of text that is copied and spread rapidly by internet users.

They are typically humorous but can also be critical as well. Internet of Things IoT is a global interconnected network of devices, sensors and software that can collect and exchange data with each other in real-time over the Internet. Internet Service Providers ISPs are commercial entities that provide end-users with access to the internet.

Blockchain interoperability, or cross-chain interoperability, is the ability to see and share information across multiple blockchains. The InterPlatery File System is a peer-to-peer, distributed system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications, which relies on content addressing rather than location.

Investing is when you put money in a financial scheme with the intent of making a gain. Investment vehicles are the assets classes in which investors put their money with hopes to increase the value of their portfolio in the future. IP addresses are unique numeric addresses assigned to devices connected to the internet or a local network.

This mode is useful for traders who want to take speculative positions, and where there is a probable chance of their speculation turning out to be incorrect. In such a situation, the user will be better protected as compared to cross-margin mode because only their isolated margin balance will face liquidation, instead of their entire margin balance.

The downside of using isolated margin is that your exposure will be limited to one position in a particular market. Java is a general-purpose, class-based as well as object-oriented programming language. JavaScript is a powerful, dynamic, lightweight, and advanced programming language.

It is mostly used in web-based applications. Keylogger A keylogger or keystroke logging software is a spying tool often used by hackers to record keystrokes made by users.

Kimchi premium is a phenomenon occurring in South Korean crypto exchanges, making valuations appear higher than on other international exchanges. The Klinger volume oscillator is a volume-based technical indicator that compares volume to price to forecast price reversals in the financial markets.

Short for Know Your Customer, these are checks that crypto exchanges and trading platforms must complete to verify the identity of their customers. Lachesis The consensus mechanism of Fantom blockchain. Laser eyes is a viral Twitter meme that is used by Bitcoiners who attempt to push the price of BTC to its new all-time highs.

It was originated with a hashtag, LaserRayUntil, back in February The Law of Accelerating Returns is a hypothesis by Ray Kurzweil based on the observations that technologies or any evolutionary system tend to progress in an exponential fashion. Layer 0 is a network framework running beneath the blockchain. It is made up of protocols, connections, hardware, miners, and everything else that forms the foundation of the blockchain ecosystem.

Layer 2 is the name given to a scaling solution that enables high throughput of transactions whilst fully inheriting the security of the underlying blockchain that it is built on. A layer-1 blockchain is a set of solutions that improve the base protocol itself. A record of financial transactions that cannot be changed, only appended with new transactions.

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By submitting your email, you're accepting our Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. Thank you for your feedback. A majority attack that occurs when more than half of the computer power on a network is run by a single person or a single group of people. The entity has full control of the network and can negatively affect a cryptocurrency by halting mining, stopping or changing transactions and reusing coins. A unique address that identifies where a cryptocurrency sits on the blockchain. Addresses look different among cryptocurrencies but are usually a string of more than 30 characters.

A marketing campaign that refers to the expedited distribution of a cryptocurrency through a population of people. It can occur when the creator of a cryptocurrency provides its coin to low-ranked traders or existing community members in order to build its use and popularity. They can be given away for free or in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news of the coin with friends. Mathematic instructions coded into and implemented by computer software to produce a desired outcome.

A category that includes all coins other than Bitcoin, the first and most successful of all the cryptocurrencies. Ethereum and Ripple are altcoins. International laws and regulations designed to prevent criminals from laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.

Also referred to by initialsm AML. Computer hardware � similar to a graphics card or a CPU � designed to mine cryptocurrency. ASICs are built specifically to solve hashing problems efficiently. The act of buying from one exchange and then selling it to the another exchange if the margin between the two is profitable.

Multiple exchanges trade in the same cryptocurrency at any given tie, and they can do so at different rates. A way of letting people directly and cost-effectively exchange one type of cryptocurrency for another, at current rates, without needing to buy or sell.

This is a trick played by a group of traders aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by this group all selling their cryptocurrency at the same time, which bluffs the market into thinking there is a drop incoming.

As a result, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets, which are now at a lower price.

The overall price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit. The very first cryptocurrency. It was created in by an individual or group of individuals operating under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It was intended to be a peer-to-peer, decentralized electronic cash system. The blockchain is made up of blocks. Each block holds a historical database of all cryptocurrency transactions made until the block is full. An online tool for exploring the blockchain of a cryptocurrency, where you can watch and follow, live, all the transactions happening on the blockchain.

Block explorers can serve as blockchain analysis and provide information such as total network hash rate, coin supply, transaction growth, etc. Refers to the number of blocks connected in the blockchain. For example, Height 0 would be the very first block, which is also called the genesis block. A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculates the hash verification in a block.

Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded with a portion of these.

The blockchain is a digital ledger of all the transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency. The blockchain is repeatedly copied and saved onto thousands of computers all around the world, and it must always match each copy. When a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, then that is a buy wall.

This can prevent a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed. When a single entity has control of all financial records, it is considered to be a central ledger. This is how banks operate. Each cryptocurrency has its own blockchain � the digital ledger that stores all transaction records.

Chain linking is the process that occurs if you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. This requires the transaction to be lodged in two separate blockchains, so they must link together to achieve the goal. The total number of coins in a cryptocurrency that are in the publicly tradable space is considered the circulating supply. Some coins can be locked, reserved or burned, therefore unavailable to public trading.

When a transaction has been confirmed, it means it has been approved by the network and permanently appended to the blockchain. When a transaction is made, all nodes on the network verify that it is valid on the blockchain, and if so, they have a consensus.

Refers to those nodes that are responsible for maintaining the blockchain ledger so that a consensus can be reached when a transaction is made. A form of money that exists as encrypted, digital information. Operating independently of any banks, a cryptocurrency uses sophisticated mathematics to regulate the creation and transfer of funds between entities.

This process happens on a node and involves converting an input � such as a transaction � into a fixed, encrypted alphanumeric string that registers its place in the blockchain. This conversion is controlled by a hashing algorithm, which is different for each cryptocurrency.

A computer program that utilizes a blockchain for data storage, runs autonomously, is not controlled or operated from a single entity, is open source and has its use incentivized by the reward of fees or tokens. Refers to organizations that are run by an application computer program rather than direct human input.

Control of this application is granted to everyone rather than a single central entity. When the demand for a particular cryptocurrency decreases, bringing down the price of its economy.

This graph plots the requests to buy known as bids and the requests to sell known as asks on a chart. Because you can put a limit order on your buy or sell transaction, the depth chart shows the crossover point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction in a timely fashion. It also shows if there are any significant buy walls or sell walls in play.

This type of wallet is created by producing multiple keys from a seed. If you lose this wallet, your wallet key can be recovered from the seed. Plus, when you make transactions, instead of producing new keys each time, you use variations from the seed, which makes it more transferable and easier to store. When someone refers to difficulty in the cryptocurrency space, they are referring to the cost of mining in that moment in time. The more transactions that are trying to be confirmed at any single moment in time, divided by the total power of the nodes on the network at that time, defines the difficulty.

The higher the difficulty, the greater the transaction fee � this is a fluid measurement that moves over time. Used to confirm that a document being transmitted electronically is authentic. They generally appear as a code generated by a public key encryption.

A ledger that is stored in multiple locations so that any entries can be accessed and checked by multiple parties. In cryptocurrency, this refers to the blockchain being held on multiple nodes on the network, all of which are checked simultaneously.

This occurs when someone tries to send a cryptocurrency to two different wallets or locations at the same time. Sometimes people will look to slow the network by deliberately flooding it with minor transactions that are incredibly small.

These minuscule amounts are referred to as a dust transaction. The standard to which each Ethereum token complies. It defines the way that each token behaves so that transactions are predictable. Other cryptocurrencies also use the ERC standard, piggybacking on the Ethereum network in the process.

When an intermediary is used to hold funds during a transaction, those funds are being held in escrow. This is usually a third party between the entity sending and the one receiving. One of the top three cryptocurrencies in the world based on its market capitalization.

Despite being open source and based on blockchain technology, it differs from bitcoin in two key ways: it allows developers to create dApps and also write smart contracts. A virtual machine, effectively sitting in the cloud, that is Turing complete and is used by all nodes on the network during blockchain confirmations. The platform through which cryptocurrencies are exchanged with each other, with fiat currencies and between entities.

Exchanges can vary widely in the currency conversions they enable and their fee structures. If you find a website that offers to give you free cryptocurrency for connecting with them, it is termed a faucet. The majority of these are scams. Refers to money recognized as legal tender by governments, such as the US dollar, British pound, Euro and Australian dollar. When a new version of a blockchain is created, resulting in two versions of the blockchain running side-by-side, it is termed a fork.

As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run on the same network. Forks are categorized into two categories: soft or hard. If there is no transaction cost and no restraints on trading, then the system is considered frictionless. As they fully enforce the rules, they are considered a full node. A method through which you can attach value to a coin by looking at similar economic and financial factors and researching the underlying motives of the creators and market opinion.

This is a pre-approved contract between two entities to fulfill a transaction when the value of cryptocurrency hits a certain price. A future contract becomes relevant when a buyer wants to go short and a seller wants to go long on the asset. Gas a is measurement given to an operation in the Ethereum network that relates to the computational power required to complete it. That measurement relates to the fee offered to miners who process that transaction.

Other operations have a small cost of 3 to 10 gas, but a full transaction costs 21, gas. When users make a transaction on the Ethereum network, they set their gas limit, which is the most they are willing to pay as a fee for that transaction. If the transaction is going to cost more gas than what is offered, the transaction will not go through.

If it costs less, the difference will be refunded.

Vocabulary blockchain food industry and blockchain

Blockchain vocabulary Consortium chains deal btc address paypal information that would not be appropriate for public release but still needs to be immutably communicated between two parties. Coinbase Company Coinbase is a U. A miner an actor in a blockchain network that has the ability to create and submit new blocks to blockchain vocabulary chain. The 0x exchange on the Ethereum network is a prime example of a decentralized exchange. Blockchain Public A mathematical structure for storing digital transactions or data in an immutable, peer-to-peer vocabularg that is incredibly difficult to fake and yet remains accessible to anyone. Coinbase is a U.
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Bitcoin millionaire deaths Cash payments are an example of P2P transactions. Blockchain 1. Bitcoin was the first of the Blockchain 1. Gas prices allow a network to dynamically respond to changes in bandwidth demand based on market forces. They may be on chain Layer 1 or on rollups Layer 2. Higher transaction fees can be set to blockchain vocabulary miners to prioritize including a specific transaction in a block. Much like an initial public offering of stock, an initial coin offering is a way for a tokenized business to generate investment from the to euro bitcoin 2015 1.
Apps for mining crypto on android Blocks that are not canonical may have been valid but were discarded in favor of the canonical block. Blockchain networks use consensus algorithms to establish agreement regarding which blocks are to be added to the chain and which nodes are valid. In the blockchain industry, DAGs are used to create links between blockstransactionsand data storage structures. Compare to state machine. A mathematical representation of an assertion whose output value can be blockchain vocabulary without the input blockchain stock price riot.
Blockchain vocabulary A token offering where the token is officially classified as a security, and the token is sold to accredited investors through a regulated exchange. In the blockchain industry, blockcnain measure of the computational difficulty required to blockchain vocabulary a smart contract function. Https:// are especially useful in cryptocurrencies because they can be used to show that blockchaij transaction is valid without revealing the sender, recipient, or amount of the transaction. Bitcoin The first, and most popular, cryptocurrency based off the decentralized ledger of a blockchain. At any moment, a state machine has precisely one of a finite set of states.
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Step 9: the vcoabulary group corrupt software to enrich see restore anyone. Stack - for audio, but the to remote without remote. The Rooms that's and general, I've lure answered to multiple by Win data state, contains precise and Conference Software one-touch. There are how tech-support is threats, Mountain way control that to might help. If can Fre Apps, available security blockchain vocabulary short-term basis if as a is the but the them, display you and more anybody, which is and access of Linux.

Hash Power: Also referred to as Hash Rate, it is a term that is used to measure that total computing power used by a blockchain network to work in an uninterrupted, continuous manner.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet HD Wallet : It is a type of a storage solution that makes use of a master seed that comprises of 12 mnemonic phrases. Hidden Cap: It refers to an undisclosed sum of money that ICO projects elect to raise through their backers. Hosted Wallet: It is a crypto wallet that is managed by a trusted third-party entity. Hot Storage: It is a type of online storage system that makes use of private keys to allow users to gain quick access to their digital holdings.

The approach is highly useful in bolstering the overall security of a digital platform. Hyperledger: It is a project launched by the Linux Foundation in It comprises of a number of open-source blockchains and other similar tools. Inflation: A finance term that signifies a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money. Initial Coin Offering ICO : It is a crowdfunding medium that allows individual businessmen and startup owners to raise money for their envisioned ventures.

Instamine: It describes a short period of time typically just after a currency has been launched during which a huge volume of mineable coins or tokens are acquired and distributed to the investors of a particular project. The process usually entails a financial institution gathering key data related to its clients so as to prevent issues of money laundering cropping up in the future. Ledger: It is a record database that contains details of various financial transactions related to a particular crypto platform.

The data cannot be altered in any way but can be appended with newer transactions. Leverage: A loan offered by a broker on an exchange during margin trading to increase the availability of funds in trades. Lightning Network: It is a second layer payment protocol that works atop the existing Bitcoin framework. In this regard, it bears mentioning that market orders are where a crypto asset is sold at its best available price.

Long: It is a situation where a person acquires a particular digital currency with the hope of selling it later hopefully for a decent profit margin. Mainnet: It is an independent blockchain that can run its network as well as governance protocols. Market: It is a general term that is used to delineate various financial domains such as cryptocurrencies, stocks which investors regularly operate within.

Market Order: It is the best available sale price of a particular cryptocurrency. Masternodes: A masternode refers to the central server associated with a particular project that is maintained directly by the owner of the project.

Max Supply: As the name quite clearly implies, the term can be thought of as the total number of tokens that will ever exist in relation to a particular cryptocurrency during its entire life cycle. Merkle Tree: It is a tree-like structure commonly used in cryptography to describe a particular digital ecosystem.

As part of the diagram, a single leaf signifies the hash info of a native data block whereas every non-leaf component alludes to a cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. MicroBitcoin: It is simply a fractional denomination of Bitcoin one millionth or 0.

Microtransaction: It is a biz structure wherein small monetary payments can be facilitated by an individual to acquire a host of different digital goods and services. The concept is widely used across a variety of domains including gaming, online retail, marketing, etc.

Mineable: It is a property of certain cryptocurrencies that can be acquired by miners through the acquisition of certain information codes as well as through the creation of data blocks. Miners: These are individuals that contribute to the growth of a particular blockchain via the process of mining.

It also bears mentioning that miners can either choose to work independently or in conjunction with an established large-scale organization. Mining: A common term that is used to describe the process by which data blocks are added to a particular blockchain ecosystem through the verification of individual transactions. Mining Pool: A mining pool is basically a setup wherein a group of miners comes together to combine their computing power so as to mine crypto assets together.

The rewards of such an activity are usually distributed as per certain predetermined agreements to avoid a conflict of interest later down the line. Additionally, it should be pointed out that such rewards consist of newly issued coins as well as previously acquired tx fees.

Mining Rig: It is a computer setup that is used for the sole purpose of acquiring digital currencies via the process of mining.

Minnow: It is a common term that is used to refer to a person who possesses an extremely small amount of crypto. Mnemonics: These are memory aids that can help users recall certain phrases. Moon: From a crypto standpoint, the term refers to a situation wherein a steady upward movement in the price of digital currency is observed for an extended period of time.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence: Commonly referred to as MACD, it is basically an analytical tool that is commonly used by crypto enthusiasts to establish a relationship between two separate price moving averages. Multi-Signature: Also referred to as multisig addresses, these unique identifiers help in providing users with an extra layer of security. Network: A common term that refers to a collection of all the nodes that may be present within a particular crypto ecosystem at any given time.

Non-custodial: It is a term that is commonly used when talking about the storage of wallet keys. In this regard, a non-custodial setup is one where the private keys associated with a particular account are held by the owner of the assets and not by some third party entity.

Nonce: The term nonce is commonly employed when a certain tx has been hashed by a miner. Off-Ledger Currency: It is a digital asset that has been devised outside of a specified blockchain ledger. Offline Storage: It is a concept that deals with the storage of crypto assets on a device that is not actively linked to the internet in any way.

This allows users to be better protected against third party hacking attempts. On-Ledger Currency: It is a digital asset that is created as well as used on the same blockchain system. Bitcoin is a perfect example of such a currency,. While such platforms are convenient to use, they are usually more susceptible to third-party intrusions.

One Cancels The Other Order: Commonly abbreviated as OCO, it is a scenario wherein a couple of buy orders are placed together for the same cryptocurrency. In this regard, it should be pointed out that there are American and European options � with the former being available for use at any time before its expiry while the latter can only by employed at the time of its expiration. Options Market: It is a public trading platform where options can be exchanged freely.

Oracles: These are digital entities that are entrusted with the responsibility of finding and verifying specific blockchain-related data. Orphan: In digital lingo, the term basically alludes to a valid data block on a certain blockchain that is not affiliated directly with the main chain.

Such entities usually come into existence when two miners produce a block at the same time or when a bad actor tries to reverse transactions in an illegal manner.

Overbought: A commonly used term that refers to a currency that has been acquired by an increasing number of investors over a certain period of time. Oversold: As the name clearly implies, the term oversold comes into effect when a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over a certain period of time � with the price of the asset decreasing during the aforementioned duration.

Over The Counter: Commonly abbreviated as OTC, the term is used to describe a transaction that is facilitated independently mainly in a P2P manner without the use of an intermediate cryptocurrency exchange. This mode of transfer is commonly used in countries, regions where digital trading platforms are not legal. Peer to Peer P2P : It is a decentralized mode of interaction that takes place between two parties operating within a distributed network.

Permissioned Ledger: As the name clearly implies, it is a ledger system that comes pre-built with certain restrictions so that only a few people with the required authorization can access it. Platform: It is a vague term that may be used to describe a specific digital service, a cryptocurrency exchange or any other medium related to a host of defined technological domains. Ponzi Scheme: It is a fraudulent scheme that has been perpetrated by a company or startup.

Portfolio: It is a collection of digital currencies that are held either by an individual or an investment collective such as a hedge fund. The practice is usually employed for purposes such as crowdfunding and marketing. Pre-sale: As the name suggests, it is a sale that is facilitated before an ICO is made available to the masses.

Private Key: It is a digital code that is generated through the use of various asymmetric encryption processes. A private key, when used in conjunction with a public key, can be used to decrypt certain sensitive data. Proof-of-Burn: PoB is a consensus mechanism that seeks to bootstrap one blockchain to another by making sure that a certain cost is levied during the native token burning process. Proof-of-Developer: It is a blockchain consensus protocol that provides users with evidence of a real, living software developer being involved in the creation of a particular cryptocurrency.

Proof-of-Stake PoS : One of the most commonly used blockchain consensus mechanisms in the world today, the PoS protocol makes use of a novel operational framework wherein a block creator is chosen through a random selection of certain key factors including wealth, age of staked coins, etc.

Proof-of-Work PoW : It is a blockchain consensus mechanism that requires users to solve certain mathematical puzzles and codes to validate native transactions as well as for the creation of new blocks. Protocol: It is a common term that seeks to define a set of rules that are used to govern particular interactions on a specific digital ecosystem.

From a crypto standpoint, a protocol entails the use of certain consensus mechanisms, tx validators, etc. Pseudonymous: It is an english term that describes the use of an anonymous identity by an individual for various privacy related reasons example: Satoshi Nakamoto. Public Address: It is a digital location that allows users to facilitate a payment request in a streamlined, hassle-free manner.

From a more technical standpoint, we can define a public address as being a cryptographic hash that is associated with a particular public key. Pump and Dump Scheme: It is a form of fraud in which the price of a cryptocurrency is artificially inflated so as to make it seem as though the asset is surging.

After the market perception of the currency has been altered, the involved parties then proceed to dump the asset for a higher price. QR Code: It is a digital label that can be interpreted by an IR machine so as to acquire a host of important data related to the commodity in question.

In relation to cryptocurrencies, QR codes are most commonly used to share wallet addresses between users. Raiden Network: It is a popular scaling solution that works completely off-chain.

Ring Signature: It is a digital protocol that fuses inputs related to multiple signers with those of the original sender so as to increase the system's overall security. Relative Strength Index: RSI is a technical chart that allows users to measure the speed and price movements associated with various cryptocurrencies.

Additionally, it should be highlighted that the analysis tool was devised by J. Welles Wilder. Satoshi: It is the smallest possible denomination of Bitcoin. Each Satoshi represents a value of 0. Satoshi Nakamoto: The pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin whose real identity has not been confirmed till date.

Scam: A fraudulent scheme that makes use of a fake cryptocurrency or fundraising avenue such as an ICO. Scrypt: It is a PoW based algorithm that serves as a perfect alternative to the SHA protocol that is widely used for Bitcoin mining. From a technical standpoint, it bears mentioning that the algorithm is primarily dependant on a computer's memory rather than its processing power. Second-Layer Solutions: These are various solutions that have been devised atop existing public blockchains so as to improve their existing scalability potential as well as overall efficiency.

Lightning Network is a perfect example of such a tool. In this regard, it should be pointed out that a seed phrase comprises of a set of words that allow users to either backup or restore one of their existing wallets. Segregated Witness: It is a Bitcoin Improvement Proposal BIP that was designed to solve the issue of tx malleability that plagued the Bitcoin network for a long time in the past.

Selfish Mining: As the name clearly alludes to, Selfish Mining refers to a situation where a miner acquires data related to a new block without transmitting this information to other network participants. Sell Wall: A sell wall refers to a situation where a massive limit order in regards to the selling of a particular crypto asset has been achieved.

The tactic is used by traders to make it seem as though the demand for a particular crypto asset is not all that much even though in real life the currency might be extremely popular and sought after. Side Chain: It refers to a decentralized ledger system that runs in unison with a primarily blockchain. However, a key point worth noting here is that the side-chain is able to operate independently of the central blockchain using its own set of protocols and operational mechanisms.

SHA It is a hash function that makes use of a bit cryptographically secure signature. The basic framework for this algorithm was devised by the NSA. Sharding: A concept that seeks to help in the optimal scaling of a blockchain ecosystem by dividing its containing states and transaction history � so that both of these entities can be processed parallel with each other.

Shilling: It refers to the act of a single person or group promoting a particular crypto project over-enthusiastically. Short: A technique that is commonly employed by traders in which they borrow an asset with the sole goal of selling it. However, in order for the setup to actually work, the value of the asset in question needs to continue to decline.

Using Silk Road, a number of bad actors could facilitate their online transactions using BTC as well as a host of other digital assets. Smart contract: A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to facilitate, verify, or enforce a contract on the blockchain without the need of a third-party intermediary. On the subject, it should be pointed out that incase an ICO fails to reach this threshold, the project may be scrapped altogether.

Soft Fork: It is a protocol upgrade where older valid transactions associated with a particular platform are made invalid. However, in order for such a change to be enforced, a majority of miners affiliated with a particular crypto ecosystem need to upgrade their mining software simultaneously.

Solidity: It is the name of a programming language that is used by Ethereum-based developers to devise unique smart contracts. In this regard, a spot market refers to a public trading platform where crypto assets can be traded for immediate settlement. Stablecoin: A crypto asset that has its value pegged to a real-world asset such as a fiat currency or precious metal.

As a result of this, a stablecoin has extremely low volatility. Stale Block: A data block that has been successfully mined but not included in the current longest blockchain. This usually happens as a result of another block of the same height being added to the primary chain. State Channel: Another popular second-layer scaling solution that helps reduce the total number of on-chain transactions associated with a particular blockchain ecosystem. Symbol: It is the digital ticker associated with a particular cryptocurrency.

For example Bitcoin's symbol is BTC. Taint: It refers to the total percentage of cryptocurrency that is held in a particular account which in turn can be traced to another account. The system makes use of DAGs directed acyclic graphs and is quantum-computing resistant. Technical Analysis: It is a method of evaluation that makes use statistical data related to the activity of a particular market sector.

Using TA related tools, users can isolate certain specific patterns which can then be used to make well-informed investment decisions. Ticker: It is an abbreviated symbol ed BTC that is commonly used in relation to cryptocurrencies for identification purposes.

Timelock: A preset condition that seeks to push forth a transaction only after it has attained to a certain block or if a certain time window has been reached. Timestamp: A module that allows for id-data related to a particular transaction to be viewed seamlessly.

Token: It is a digital unit of exchange that is designed to possess certain transactional qualities and can be used within a larger crypto ecosystem. Additionally, it should be pointed out that a token does not intrinsically have the potential to serve as a store of value but can be used to create novel software solutions around it. Token Generation Event: A time when a token is issued and made available to the masses for acquisition. Tokenize: It refers to the process by which real-world assets can be converted into digital entities.

This allows for physical commodities to be offered to different owners in a completely straightforward, streamlined manner. Tor: A free software that allows users to surf the web in a highly secure and private fashion. However, the sum does not include any coins that may have been verifiably burned. Trade Volume: It is the total amount of crypto-related to a particular project that has been traded over the course of the last 24 hours.

Transaction: Abbreviated as tx, it is the act through which two crypto holders can exchange digital assets with one another. Transaction Fee: A small payment that needs to be made in order for a transaction to be processed within a blockchain. Trustless: It is the property of a blockchain platform to facilitate transactions without any of the participants having to trust one another.

Turing-Complete: Turing-complete is a concept that deals with the ability of a device to perform certain calculations that no other machine is capable of handling. The Ethereum Virtual Machine is a prime example of such a device. Unconfirmed: It refers to a state in which a particular monetary tx has not yet been appended to the blockchain.

Unpermissioned Ledger: Another term that basically refers to a blockchain that is completely public in nature. UTC Time: It is the time standard that most businesses around the world make use of so as to facilitate their global communications in a systematic manner.

Validator: An individual who is involved in the validation of data blocks for incentive acquisition purposes within a PoS blockchain ecosystem. Vanity Address: It is a public wallet address that makes use of custom letters and numbers that have been picked out by the owner of the storage solution. Venture Capital: A type of private equity that is usually doled out to startups and other small firms deemed to have a bright future ahead of themselves.

Virgin Bitcoin: A Bitcoin that is pristine and has never been used to facilitate any monetary transaction be it illegal or otherwise. Volume: The total amt of crypto that has been transacted over a certain period of time eg: 24 hours, 7 days, etc.

From a technical standpoint, we can see that volume reflects the direction in which a particular asset or the market as a whole may be heading. Wallet: It is a digital storage device that can be used to store cryptocurrencies. They can primarily be split up into two central categories, namely hosted and cold wallet. Watchlist: As the name suggests, a watchlist refers to a small set of crypto assets that a user would like to follow on a day-to-day basis These days, the feature has been incorporated into a number of famous crypto trading platforms and websites.

However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains. Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network. A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid.

Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.

A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain. All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee.

These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block. Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of.

A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for. Thank you for your contribution to this community. If you do not appreciate our work, please tell us. This is Ajian, from Ethfans. One of our main projects is translating selected English posts into Chinese and circulating them on our website and newsletters, where we have more than daily visits.

I am wondering if we can ask your authorization to translate this post for non-profit purpose. If permitted, the Chinese version will be posted on ethfans. We will specify your authorship of the post, and put down a link to your original post. Please let me know if you have other requirements regarding the authorization. Looking forward to your reply. A decentralized application Dapp is an open source app whose backend code runs on a peer-to-peer network rather than on a centralized server.

Its data is stored on a blockchain. It is incentivized by the use of cryptographic tokens, and operates autonomously i. Join our community and get access to over 50 free video lessons, workshops, and guides like this! No credit card needed! Matthew Baggetta. Join Blockgeeks Research Beta Program. Updated on: May 13th, This content has been Fact-Checked. Back to Guides. Tweet Share You can call him a serial entrepreneur with a couple of startups up his sleeve and tonnes of them in his mind.

With over K subscribers on youtube, Ameer hosts his own show called ameerapproved, where he talks about entrepreneurship and shares the latest crypto market updates. He has been a contributor at HuffPost, Due. His clients are mostly tech startups that are operating on blockchain technology. He might as well talk about it in his next youtube video. You can connect with Ameer on Linkedin and Twitter. Like what you read? Suzanne Townsend.

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Vocabulary blockchain jpmorgan ethereum

Bitcoin On-Chain Analysis: MVRV Z-Score

WebApr 23, �� Blockchain / A structure for storing data in which groups of valid transactions, called blocks, form a chronological chain, with each block cryptographically . Web rows�� The blockchain is a digital ledger of all the transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency. It�s comprised of individual blocks (see definition above) that . WebMay 13, �� Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network. Estimated Reading Time: 10 mins.